An alcohol is an organic compound with one or more hydroxyl groups bound to a saturated carbon atom. Reactions of alcohols are important for the new MCAT because alcohols appear everywhere in biochemistry. From basic carbohydrate chemistry to the reactions of the citric acid cycle to the mechanism of a serine protease, understanding the hydroxyl group is an essential foundation.
Reactions of Alcohols and Ethers Images
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Basic Terms Crossword Puzzle
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Conceptual Vocabulary for Alcohols
Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain a ether group - an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of substitution reaction in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive charge of a group or atom called the leaving group.
A dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule.
Esterification is the general name for a chemical reaction in which two chemicals, such as an alcohol and an acid, form an ester as the reaction product.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol.
Fischer esterification is the process of forming an ester by refluxing a carboxylic acid and an alcohol in the presence of an acid catalyst.
An epoxide is a cyclic ether with only three ring atoms.
The Williamson ether synthesis involves the reaction of an alkoxide ion with a primary alkyl halide via an SN2 reaction.
Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound often used in chlorination reactions in which sulfur is bound to an oxygen and two chlorine atoms.
Phosphorus tribromide is widely used in the laboratory for the conversion of alcohols to alkyl bromides.
Transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol.
The Jones oxidation is a chemical reaction described as the chromic acid oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols to carboxylic acids and ketones, respectively.
Crown ethers are heterocyclic chemical compounds that, in their simplest form, are cyclic oligomers of ethylene oxide.
The Swern oxidation is a chemical reaction whereby a primary or secondary alcohol is oxidized to an aldehyde or ketone using oxalyl chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and an organic base, such as triethylamine.
The Guerbet reaction is an organic reaction converting a primary aliphatic alcohol into its beta-alkylated dimer alcohol with loss of one equivalent of water.
The Chugaev elimination is a chemical reaction involving a xanthate intermediate that carries out the elimination of water from primary alcohols to produce terminal alkenes.